Design of Solar Powered Vapour Absorption System

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Over the past few decades, energy is the backbone of technology and economic development. In addition to men, machines and money, ‘energy’ is now the fourth factor of production. The objective of this paper is to design and study an environment friendly vapour absorption refrigeration system of unit capacity using R 717 (NH3) and water as the working fluids.

The system is designed and tested for various operating conditions using hot water as heat source. In this paper, performance of the fabricated system is outlined with respect to various operating conditions related to heat source, condenser, absorber and evaporator temperatures. The basic idea of this paper is derived from the solar heating panel installed on the hostel roofs of the institute.

The unit has been installed for about an investment of Rs. 1 crore 70 lacs. But the irony is that, this solar heating unit remains idle in the summer months. Also the solar potential is
at maximum in the summer.

Solar energy is a very large, inexhaustible source of energy. The power from the sun intercepted by the earth is approximately 1.8 ×1011 MW which is much more larger than the present consumption rate on the earth of all commercial energy sources.

Thus, in principle, solar energy could supply all the present and future energy needs of the world on the continuing basis. This makes it one of the most promising of the unconventional energy sources. In addition to its size, solar energy has two other factors in its favour.

First unlike fossil fuels and nuclear power, it is an environmental clean source of energy. Second, it is free and available in adequate quantities in almost all parts of the world where people live. However, there are many problems associated with its use. The main problem is that it is a dilute source of energy.

Even in the hottest regions on earth, the solar radiation flux rarely exceeds 1kWh/m2 and the total radiation over a day is best about 6 kWh/m2.These are low values from the point of view of technological utilization. Consequently, large collecting areas are required in many applications and this result in excessive costs.
Source: IAENG
Author: V.K.Bajpai

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